Global environmental problems are diverse and dramatic, because they encompass practically all constituents of the natural human environment: organic and inorganic nature, natural resources, and climate. On the whole, global environmental problems are caused by the growing levels of harm that humans inflict on the planet. They include economic activity, irrational and wasteful nature management, overpopulation, urbanization, wars and armed conflicts.

Pollution and resource depletion have a long history that started with man populating the Earth and actively exploring it. These factors intensified during the periods of emerging industrial production, growth of cities and population growth, and were stimulated by industrial revolutions. Anthropogenic pressure on the Earth’s environment reached its peak in the 20th century resulting in a number of irreversible consequences manifesting themselves in the 21st century.