To plan the development of resource substitution research and industries, we must know the size of remaining reserves.

Resource Type






Catastrophic decrease of oxygen level (by 10 billion tonnes per year – enough for several billion people to breathe)

Polluting atmospheric emissions, elimination of phytoplankton, which generates 80% of oxygen, forest clearance, and other anthropogenic factors

Atmosphere deterioration



Pollution: negative changes in physical and chemical composition

Natural and anthropogenic factors of biological, physical-mechanical, chemical, noise, radioactive and thermal pollution: residential areas, industry and agriculture

Loss of natural qualities and functions, turbidity, oxidization, poisoning and inability to remain as a fully functional habitat for living organisms

High rate of fresh water depletion

Growing household and industrial consumption

Risk of conflict over rights to own, extract and use water resources


Fertile soil

Soil erosion: the process of excessive entrainment of the upper fertile layer of soil (over 25 million tonnes per year). 23% of the land covered with vegetation has already ceased to exist

Precipitation, weathering, agricultural activity and deforestation

Soil erosion kills arable lands; fresh water reservoirs become contaminated with phosphorus and other fertilisers washed down from cultivated land

Trampling (10 million sq. km)

Cattle grazing

Diminishing soil fertility



Elimination of forest resources: forested areas have halved globally over the last 200 years and keep diminishing drastically. Wet tropical forests are the fastest disappearing: currently only one third of the initial area remains.

70% of the population in developing countries use wood for cooking and heating their houses; human wood consumption is estimated to be at 700 kg per annum. Over half of cleared forests are burned annually to produce energy.

Forests and plants (especially in the tropics) produce 20% of oxygen; therefore, the reduction of their size impacts the atmosphere negatively. Deforestation also leads to the annihilation of entire ecosystems.


Natural gas

The reduction of this strategic life sustaining resource of modern civilisation.

Growing demand for energy sources, low gas prices and high production rates.

With the current level of proven reserves and production rates, this fuel will last humanity between 55 and 60 years.



The most necessary energy resource is fast depleting.

Growing demand for energy sources, low oil prices and high production rates.

The current world oil reserves are estimated to be 1,65 trillion barrels. With the current level of proven reserves and production rates, this fuel will last humanity between 50 and 54 years.